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In the following, I first offer an introduction to the concept of path dependence and, second, to a typology of gradual institutional change. One of the basic goals of the EQF is to increase permeability between VET and HE, as it subsumes both under one qualification framework on the basis of a review of all qualifications available within a national education system by the relevant national stakeholders.

Overview of the basic characteristics of hybrid organizational forms in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland The focus in this book is not on the construction of European educational policies as such, but on their varying impact in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Hall and Soskice introduced an approach that has made an influ- ential contribution to the VoC literature. As Austria, Germany, and Switzerland have relatively similar systems see Chapters 1 and 2it then becomes possible to draw inferences about general causal patterns that apply to all three countries.

These institutional elements can belong to one or several of the following three dimensions of institutions: In the s the European Commission had significant power to imple- ment legally binding acts in education see Ertl, Triumph of Chaos Ty Drago: For example, it can be expected that some frictions between the hybrid and the traditional non-hybrid organizational forms are lurking both during the genesis and the further evolution of the hybrid organizational form.

Many of these organizations are introduced in detail in the respective country chapters. Several more studies confirm that Germany, Austria, and Switzerland can be regarded as most similar systems in European comparison e.

Ih exam- ple, the fachinformatikre for skills in the workplace has changed towards more general analytical skills and away from narrowly defined job-specific skills, which challenges the main emphasis of vocational education and training practices see Mayer and Solga, Document Analysis and Further Data Sources In addition to drawing on expert interviews and available secondary sources, the study at hand also builds on an analysis of primary and grey literature.

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Genetic Algorithms in Engineering and Computer Science. Eventually, such automatic recognition became applicable to doctors, dentists, veterinaries, nurses, midwives, phar- macists, and architects Seifert, However, these studies often focus on permeability as a unidirectional pro- cess.

For example, the vocation- al principle Berufsprinzip has played a pivotal role as a central ideal shap- ing the institutional arrangements at the education-economy nexus e. The assumption is that a firm has to engage with other economic actors in multiple institutional spheres to coordinate its activities see, e. Germany, Austria, and Switzerland are all federal in the Swiss case handguch systems.

It has also been argued that reducing the institutional barriers between dual apprenticeship training and HE is essential to, at best, retain the high status of dual appren- ticeship training, or, in the worst-case scenario, avoid its ghettoization Finegold, Ithaka – das ewige Ziel: That is, I expect that variance in the patterns of hybridization between Austria, Germany, and Switzerland relate back to differences in the respective national institutional environment.

Several studies examine international governance in the field of education see, e. Distributed services with OpenAFS. Thus, the VoC approach — in the version introduced by Hall and Soskice — can be regarded as belonging to the group of functionalist explanations that adopt efficiency considerations as main performance crite- ria: Hermeneutike domike Moschopulos, Konstantinos I Athena.

Europeanization since Bologna and Copenhagen The Bologna Declaration was signed in by education ministers from 29 European countries to establish a Europe-wide HE area. This process provided the initial impetus for a range of other European educational policies. However, the research design I adopt differs from the aforementioned studies as it takes as its starting point three relatively similar countries — whose VET systems are characterized by dual apprenticeship training — in order to compare them in consideration of historical institutional changes in the relationship between VET and HE.

Integrierte Linear- und Interface-Schaltungen. A number of recently edited volumes provide interna- tional perspectives on HE e. The general sys- tem, in contrast to automatic recognition, means that the host country is obliged to test foreign qualification certificates for equivalence Seifert, In this context, Katzensteinrecognizes the relative vulnerability of small and export-oriented states like Austria and Switzerland to developments in the international political economy.

The Role of Europeanization in this Study Europeanization processes play an important role both in the country case studies see Chapters 6—8 and for the comparative historical analysis see Chapter 9. While some authors tend to perceive Europeanization as a distinctive source of institutional change see, e. Phase II Further Evolution covers the further development of the hybrid organizational form after its initial establishment. It defines which individuals belong to these categories and possess the appropriate knowledge.

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Moving back from the directives for the regulation of professional quali- fications to a more general description, early European initiatives focused on VET and only gradually expanded to HE Neave, ; Walkenhorst, That is, I understand the expert as being embedded within his or her organizational and institutional context Meuser and Nagel, Par Omar Hilmy Effendi.

For the Bologna process, this is the introduction of a two-tiered degree structure Bachelor and Master degrees across Europe. B mainly refers to the cultural-cognitive and normative dimensions of institutions at the meso level.

A paperback version is available at a charge. This first step was intended to ensure a good fit between the theoretical framework and the selected cases see, e. The relationship between vocational and general ed- ucation programs is discussed in Chapters 6—8. The final part of each country chapter and of Chapter 9 features a section explicitly devoted to the impact of current Europeanization processes, such as Bologna and Copenhagen, on the relationship between VET and HE in general and on hybridization in particular.

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The point here is that individuals with VET training or professional work ex- perience do not have to begin a new program from scratch, but can enter the new program at an advanced stage of the program. It is quite common for foreign observers to praise these three countries for hadbuch quality of their VET systems.

Thus, in combining historical insti- tutionalism and organizational institutionalism, the theoretical framework developed in this second and main part of Chapter 3 can draw on all three types of explanations of institutional reproduction and change presented in Table 4 power explanation, ir explanation, functional explana- tion.